Seeds from plants with reduced expression of ARP6 phenocopy seed from plants grown at higher temperature. (a) Relative expression of ARP6 in wild-type (WT; Bd21) and three independent ARP6 RNAi transgenic lines (T1 generation); ***P < 0.001. (b,c) Seed weight measurements (b) and yield per plant (c) in WT (Bd21) at 22/17°C and 27/22°C, as well as three independent transgenic lines at 22/17°C (T1 generation). Data are the mean ± standard error of at least 15 grains (**P < 0.01; ***P < 0.001). (d) A representative spike from WT Bd21 and ARP6 RNAi.1 displaying the empty florets (white arrowheads) that contained aborted grain. Scale bar, 1 cm.