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Table 3 Percentage of random amino-acid frequency assignments yielding lower fractions f than the natural one

From: Optimality of the genetic code with respect to protein stability and amino-acid frequencies

  %
g pol 3
g access <1
g PAM <1
g mutate <1
  1. Percentage of the sets of random amino-acid frequency assignments for which the fraction f of random codes that beat the natural code is lower than the corresponding fraction computed with the natural frequency p(a) values. This percentage is estimated for the four cost functions - gpol, gaccess, gmutate and gPAM - on the basis of 100 random frequencies and, for each of them, 106 random codes. For all cost functions except gpol, we were only able to give an upper bound (estimated to be equal to 1%), because our sample of random codes is too small and we did not find any random frequency set for which f is lower than that obtained with the natural frequencies.