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Table 2 Fraction of random codes that are fitter than the genetic code

From: Optimality of the genetic code with respect to protein stability and amino-acid frequencies

f ΦFH Φequif Φfaa
g pol 9.8 × 10-7 1.5 × 10-6 6.5 × 10-7
g access 1.7 × 10-6 1.9 × 10-6 1.2 × 10-6
g code 3.4 × 10-15* 5.1 × 10-16* 5.0 × 10-17*
g PAM 3.8 × 10-6 2.2 × 10-6 2.0 × 10-9
g mutate 2.3 × 10-6 6.0 × 10-7 2.0 × 10-9
  1. Fraction f of random codes that have a lower value of the fitness functionΦFH, Φequi or Φfaa) than the natural code, using each of the four cost functions gpol, gaccess, gcode, gPAM and gmutate. Values marked with an asterisk have been obtained by extrapolation as explained in text. The number of randomly generated codes is equal to 109 and the amino-acid frequencies used are the average ones listed in the right-hand column of Table 1.